Mystery Corner

It is mainly used for documents whose authenticity is important and to produce other papers in which it forms a decorative element. In the past, paper mills used watermarks as their seal to trace paper origin and quality. You could say that they were used like logos are today. These characters are basic and simple. In the 19th century, a process of paper production with cylinder mould was developed, where the paper itself is formed on a circular sieve. The development of this process made it possible to produce an embossed watermark that is imprinted in the sieve itself. Protected security paper incorporates various security features that prove the authenticity of the material and prevent falsification of documents. These elements can be seen in daylight or UV light. They are integrated into the paper in such a way that it is practically impossible to remove them without damaging the surface of the base material.

Looking at Art, Artifacts and Ideas

Watermarks are the most important tool for dating undated documents written on paper. Hence, catalogues and databases of watermarks play an eminent role for the work of medievalist and paper historians. The proposed project has the aim to improve this tool in two directions.

A watermark in a piece of paper is an important source of information to determine the dating of artworks. Identical watermarks are used in the same period, that.

You can print the following five types of information: “Date”, “Pages”, “Stamp”, “Text”, and “Watermark”. You can print pre-set text or any characters as the text. If the selected stamp of one position overlaps the stamp of another position, priority will be given in the order; watermark, right side, left side, and center. Content that is hidden due to overlapping will not be printed.

Text will be printed at the preset size regardless of the copy ratio or paper size setting. Text will be printed at the preset exposure regardless of the exposure setting. Depending on the paper size, some printed content may be cut off or shifted out of position. When [Stamp] is combined with other functions: Combined function name Copy results Stamp Margin Shift The margin range is shifted before printing. Tab Copy, Centering Stamp items are printed in the position set in the stamp menu.

Pamphlet Copy, Book Copy Stamp items are printed for each page when compiling. Operation Place an original, and tap the [Preview] key Place the original in the automatic document feeder or on the document glass. The format of the [Text] tab can be entered using pre-set text or soft keyboard. For information on how to enter characters with the soft keyboard or insert pre-set text, see the following “Printing directly entered text” or “Selecting a print format from pre-set text”.

A Distributed Database and Processing System for Watermarks

There are a number of printed catalogues of watermarks. These are arranged by watermark type i. The most important of these is C. Briquet’s Les Filigranes , repr. Amsterdam, Briquet spent many years in archives across France, tracing watermarks from paper dated up to

Arches paper, the 19th centuries, date paper watermarks are images are dated watermarks which produces an expiration date/time, such a document examiner​.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Wenger and V. Wenger , V. Watermarks are the most important tool for dating old, not explicitly dated paper documents. Hence, catalogues and databases of watermarks play an eminent role for the work of medievalist and paper historians. This article presents an integrated software system developed for storage, retrieval, manipulation, digital processing, and identification of watermarks in old manuscripts.

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The watermark; the oldest and most reliable paper protection element

There are two main ways of producing watermarks in paper; the dandy roll process , and the more complex cylinder mould process. Watermarks vary greatly in their visibility; while some are obvious on casual inspection, others require some study to pick out. Various aids have been developed, such as watermark fluid that wets the paper without damaging it.

dates. A number of watermarks have been found throughout this collection allowing the initial conclusion that some papers are not of. Islamic production to be.

The presence of such a watermark can help establish the date and place that an artwork was made, but only if significant features of the watermark are recognized and recorded. A project of documenting and identifying watermarks for an exhibition catalogue at the National Gallery of Art showed us that there is much to learn about the study and interpretation of watermarks in paper.

I would like to share with you some of the significant details to look for in a watermarked sheet, how to try to identify a watermark, and some problems in interpreting information given for published watermarks. I have included an annotated bibliography of some useful reference books as well as a few articles by some of the foremost current researchers in paper history.

The basis of the study of watermarks is that at a given period of time a specific paper mill would have on hand a limited number of papermaking molds, and these molds had a finite useful life. The practice in European mills was to have a pair of molds for each size of paper produced. In the papermaking work rhythm, the vatman immersed one mold in the vat while the coucher, his partner, couched the previously formed sheet off the other mold onto felts.

Each mold generally had attached to it a bent-wire mark serving to indicate the paper’s origin, size, or quality. Often additional countermarks were also attached to the mold. Each of these handmade wire marks varied slightly and produced a distinctive watermark recognizable by slight variations in the mark’s shape, size, placement, and points of attachment to the mold surface, as well as by the spacing of the chain lines and laid lines.

So there will be two recognizable “twin” watermarks for each pair of molds. In watermarks of the 18th century much finer wire attaches the mark and sewing dots become almost imperceptible. In producing common paper sizes, a mill would use that size pair of molds frequently, causing wear and damage to the wire mark and mold.

Common-sized paper molds are estimated to last about two years, while a mold for a less common paper, such as very large formats, could last for many years.

Handmade paper watermark

Until halfway the twentieth century, watermarks were reproduced with tracings. The two methods here used for the Low Countries incunabula are rubbings and electron radiography. Making rubbings is cheap and quick and does not damage the books. The best images of watermarks are made by beta radiography and electron radiography. Because of the slowness of beta radiography – a single image can take hours to capture – electron radiography is preferable.

The first electron radiographs of watermarks in Low Countries incunabula were taken from more than dated folio editions in the collection of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek the total of dated incunabula from the Low Countries in folio format is less than

Two variants of the Unicorn watermarks found in the paper used to print J 40 page 43) Variant BE & S + DATE watermarks (Quarterly 40 page 48) Erin, the.

The Gravell Watermark Archive www. Gravell and about 45, unpublished marks documented by Charles-Moise Briquet. On the website, you can search for stags, swans, or unicorns, creatures from a medieval bestiary produced long ago by wire attached to a paper mould. Watermarks are made by placing a design made with thin wire on a paper mould. The paper formed over the wire is thinner and translucent when held up to a light source.

Watermarks identify paper as the product of a particular maker or mill at a particular place and time. Watermarks were short-lived.


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Watermarks identify paper as the product of a particular maker or mill at a But for the researcher hoping to date a manuscript, print, or map.

Southworth has been using date codes on most of our watermarked grades since at least The reason for the date code is so that Southworth can tell what year the paper was made. Southworth has received numerous calls asking if we can determine when a particular sheet of our paper was made. On approximately half of the calls we receive, we identify that the paper was made after the document states it was written.

One of the calls that Southworth received was from Mr. Marvin H. Dawson wrote the following article explaining first hand how important a date-coded watermark can be. One of the questions a forensic document examiner is asked to solve many times is the age or common origin of two or more sheets of paper.

For the average examiner paper analysis alone does not resolve the question. The age or common origin of the document s may be determined through typewriting, printing, handwriting or even ink analysis; however, many times the problem may be quickly solved if a watermark is noted on the documents s. If there is a date mark on the watermark, the case could move even more quickly.


Watermarks are often obscured under text, but in this case I was lucky, as it happened to coincide with the blank portion of a folding plate. Most of the watermarks I’d seen had been smaller, simpler and more condensed, so I was immediately fascinated by this sprawling, seemingly abstract symbol. First, some background on watermarks. A wire mesh mould was lowered into this mixture and lifted out several times.

As the water drained through the mesh it deposited thin layers of fibers on the mould. You can see evidence of the wire mesh in the image above: the vertical lines the ones that look like the watermark, not the folds in the paper are called chain lines, and the more frequent horizontal lines are called laid lines.

A watermark can be a date, name, or design device made of copper or brass wire incorporated in the paper making tray which produces an.

Log in. Encountered in the course of research on multiple subjects, these Specimens demonstrate usages which may range widely in terms of geographical locations, purposes, languages, and dates or date-ranges. Some specimens are dated or datable. Some not necessarily the same as those are more or less localizable. Some have appeared on this site in blogposts, galleries, and the like. For example, see our blog and its Contents List.

The variety may reveal, for example, the use of a given watermark in many different locations and at multiple dates in Western and non-Western settings. Identifying watermarks with a known, likely, or surmised place and span of production may also revise conjectural dates assigned to particular cases of use on stylistic grounds of script or decoration. Thus, a watermark of a known or approximately known date-range could establish that the written or printed production of the item must postdate the conjectured assignment.

First, some Reference Points. Then a selection of Samples. Followed by a Mystery Bag, or Mystery Corner , with Samples calling for further identification, study, and classification. We welcome your input, advice, corrections, suggestions, and information, including more Samples.

How to Make a Watermark